January 4, 2022

Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder that causes overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sleeps attacks. People with narcolepsy are often suffering to stay awake for a lengthier period. It can cause serious disruptions of daily routine and productivity.

Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder that affects your ability to wake and sleep. In the typical cycle, sleeping starts with the early stages of sleep, then deeper stages, and after ninety minutes, there is rapid eye movement.

People with narcolepsy do not enter the first and second stages. They get into rapid eye movement almost immediately in the sleep cycle and are sometimes caused to stay awake.

What are the Symptoms of Narcolepsy?

  1. Excessive daytime sleepiness. You tend to fall asleep without warning anytime and anywhere. It also causes reduces alertness and focuses throughout the day.
  2. Sudden muscle loss. It is triggered by intense emotions and can cause several physical changes.
  3. Sleep paralysis. Inability to move or speak while falling asleep or upon waking is a symptom of narcolepsy. Sleep paralysis mimics the type of temporary paralysis that occurs during the sleeping period.
  4. Changes in rapid eye movement. It is typically when most dreaming episodes happen. It occurs any time of the day.
  5. It happens as you fall asleep and hypnopompic hallucinations if they occur upon waking.

Seek medical help if you experience excessive daytime sleepiness that disrupts your daily productivity.

What Causes Narcolepsy?

The specific cause of narcolepsy is unknown. Its typical trigger is having low levels of chemical hypocretin. It is an important neurochemical in the brain that regulates wakefulness and rapid eye movement sleep.

What is Narcolepsy with Cataplexy?

Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a sudden or temporary loss of muscle tone. It ranges from drooping eyelids to total body collapse. Intense emotions are typical triggers of narcolepsy with cataplexy.

What are the Risk Factors of Narcolepsy?

  • Genetic and environmental risk
  • Head trauma
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Tumors or non-immune responses that can affect sleep routine
  • Stroke as it can affect sleep
  • Sarcoidosis as it causes inflammation in some parts of the body
  • Lifestyle

How to Diagnose Narcolepsy?

The typical diagnosis of narcolepsy is Polysomnogram and multiple sleep latency tests. It helps your doctor in assessing your brain activity during sleep. It also determines the frequency of REM when sleeping.

What is the Treatment for Narcolepsy?

There is no specific treatment method for narcolepsy but, medical providers often recommend lifestyle changes and behavior modifications. Your doctor may also recommend stimulant medications such as Etizolam, Modafinil, and Armodafinil. These are medications that promote wakefulness.

can also help in resetting your sleep pattern.




















June 14, 2021

Where is Atazanavir used?       

Atazanavir is used to help control HIV infections in infants and children. This medicine is known as protease inhibitors that help reduce the amount of HIV in the body to help your child’s immune system work well. Atazanavir lowers the chance of getting HIV complications and improves your child’s quality of life. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved this medication.

How does Atazanavir work?

There is no cure for HIV but Atazanavir is one of the medications that lower the amount of virus in the body. This helps the immune system to recover and slow down or stop the progression of the disease from HIV to AIDS. Atazanavir is usually used in combination with other certain HIV medications. It is to slow the breakdown of Atazanavir by the liver which makes it stay in the body for longer. This boosts its level in the blood and effects against the virus.

A combination of several anti-HIV medications is necessary to fight HIV. It is because the virus turns out to be resistant to one agent very fast. This is known as combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Atazanavir is heightened with other anti-HIV medications that attack HIV in various means. This reduces the capacity of the virus to reproduce and increase. This also helps stop it from becoming resistant to treatment.

How is Atazanavir taken?

  • Atazanavir is to be taken as directed by your doctor.
  • Give this medication to your child usually once a day.
  • If your child cannot eat solid food, this medication may be mixed with a liquid such as milk or water.
  • If your child is younger than 6 months and cannot eat solid food, give it to your child using an oral syringe.
  • Give the dose within an hour after mixing with food or liquid.
  • For the best effect, take this at evenly spaced times.
  • The recommended starting dose of this medication depends on medical condition and response to the treatment.
  • Each dose must be taken in the right dose, not more or less.

What are the precautions in taking Atazanavir?

  • Before using Atazanavir, let your doctor know if you ever had an allergic reaction to it. This product may have an inactive ingredient that causes an allergic reaction.
  • Atazanavir may increase the level of cholesterol and fats in the blood. HIV infection can also cause this effect. This could increase your child’s risk for heart problems. Inform your doctor if your child has heart problems or other conditions that increase the risk of heart disease.
  • Inform your doctor if you are taking any other medications including herbal or food supplements and vitamins.
  • This form of Atazanavir is not usually recommended for use in adults. This should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
  • People taking this medicine may gain weight and may also experience increases in the levels of sugar in their blood.
  • This is not recommended for use in people having hemodialysis for kidney failure.
  • Under six years of age, this is not to be given because its safety and effectiveness have not been studied yet.
June 8, 2021

Where is Alprostadil used?

Alprostadil is an FDA-approved medication recommended for use in men with erectile dysfunction. This medicine helps the blood flow into the penis to achieve and maintain an erection. Alprostadil is identical to a naturally occurring substance found in the body that helps keep the blood vessels open. This prescription is supplied as a sterile solution for intravascular infusion.


How does Alprostadil work?

Alprostadil is a type of medicine called prostaglandin which is similar to a naturally occurring chemical called prostaglandin E1. Prostaglandin E1 is assumed to cause certain types of blood vessels to expand by relaxing the thin layer of muscle in the blood vessel wall. An erection is made through a complex chain of events. It includes signals from the nervous system and the discharge of active chemicals within the tissues of the penis. This causes blood vessels entering the penis to widen which allows more blood to enter. Other blood vessels leave the penis to tighten and stopping the blood from entering the penis.

Prostaglandin E1 plays a significant role in this course once administered right into the penis. It will eventually cause the penis to erect by increasing the blood flow into its tissues.


How is Alprostadil taken?

The dosage will depend on your medical condition, age, weight, and response to the treatment. Follow the instructions of your doctor very carefully. You should not take the medication more or less than it is prescribed. Let your doctor know if your condition does not improve or if it gets worse.

Alprostadil is used by inserting the suppository into the penis or as directed by your doctor. Your doctor may direct you to start at a low dose and gradually increase it. You should not use more than 2 doses in 24 hours.

This medication usually starts to work in about 5-10 minutes. Intercourse must be attempted within 10 to 30 minutes after having this medication. An erection might last after ejaculation but should not be firm or last longer than an hour.


What are the precautions in taking Alprostadil?

  • Be sure to tell your doctor if you are taking any other medications such as vitamins or herbal supplements.
  • This may not be recommended for use if you have a history of an allergic reaction with this medicine. Inform your doctor if you have any other allergies. Alprostadil may contain certain ingredients that cause an allergic reaction.
  • Call your doctor right away if your erection lasts longer than 4 hours.
  • This is not for use in women or children.
  • This is not recommended for use in men who have an implant in their penis and with a physical abnormality of the penis.
  • Tell your doctor if you have a medical history of penis conditions, cavernosal fibrosis, blood system cancers, or heart disease.
  • This drug may make you drowsy or dizzy. Do not use any machinery or do anything that needs your alertness until you can do it safely.
  • Alcohol can make you dizzier. Avoid alcoholic beverages while having this medication.
  • Use this drug with caution in men with blood clotting disorders, heart disease, lung disease, small temporary strokes, or a history of psychiatric illness.
May 31, 2021

Where is Aliskiren used?

Aliskiren is a tablet medicine used in people with high blood pressure. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems such as stroke and heart attack.

This medicine belongs to the group known as direct renin inhibitors that relaxes blood vessels so blood can flow more easily. Controlling or lowering high blood pressure helps prevent kidney problems, heart attacks, and strokes.


How does Aliskiren work?

Aliskiren is an FDA-approved medication that acts on an enzyme in the body called renin. Usually, renin helps the body make a compound called angiotensin I. This is converted into angiotensin II as part of the body’s natural control of blood pressure. Angiotensin II causes blood vessels to constrict which increases the blood pressure. By blocking the action of renin, this medicine reduces the production of angiotensin I and II. This allows the blood vessels to relax and widen, which lowers blood pressure.

Lowering blood pressure within the whole population by lifestyle interventions such as increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables or reducing dietary salt intake will be of great benefit. Also, blood pressure-lowering trials determine huge benefits in preventing heart failure, strokes, and coronary heart disease.


How is Aliskiren taken?

The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to the treatment. You should take this medication exactly as it is prescribed. Do not take more or less or more often than it is given by your doctor. Your doctor may start giving you a lower dose and gradually increase it.

Aliskiren is a medication to be taken by mouth, once a day, or as directed by your doctor. You may take each dose with or without a meal. Taking the medicine with a meal may help avoid or lessen nausea. High-fat foods may lessen how well this medicine is absorbed by the body. So, it is best to avoid taking this medication with a high-fat meal.


What are the precautions in taking Aliskiren?

  • Blood pressure-lowering medicines such as Aliskiren can sometimes make you feel dizzy or weary. You should avoid performing possibly dangerous tasks such as operating machinery or driving. If you feel dizzy, lie down for a few minutes or until the symptoms pass. If you frequently feel dizzy you must let your doctor know, your dose may need adjusting.
  • If you ever had an allergic reaction to this medication, let your doctor know. This drug may contain an inactive ingredient that may cause an allergic reaction.
  • Let your doctor know if you are taking any other medications including vitamins or herbal supplements.
  • Certain medicines should not be used during breastfeeding or pregnancy. However, other medicines may be safely used in breastfeeding or pregnancy providing the benefits to the mother outweighs the risks to the unborn baby. Let your doctor know if you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, before using any medicine.
  • This medicine is not recommended for use in people with hereditary angioneurotic edema and severe kidney problems.
  • This medicine must be used carefully in people with diabetes, heart disease, fluid volume or low salt in the body, and liver disease.
May 24, 2021

Where is Anagrelide used?

Anagrelide in the group of medicines called platelet-reducing agents. This is a prescription medicine used for the treatment of a certain blood disorder called thrombocythemia. Thrombocythemia is a disease where your bone marrow makes excessive platelet. Platelets are blood cell fragments that the body uses to establish blood clots. Too much platelet may cause complications with your circulation including bleeding problems and unwanted blood clots. This medication is supplied as capsules for oral administration. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved this prescription medicine.


How does Anagrelide work?

If your body creates too much platelet, it is difficult for your blood to flow normally. It will be more likely to bleed or clot. This may cause medical complications such as stroke, heart attacks, and blood clots in the legs or lungs. This can also cause bleeding of the gums, stomach, or nose. Anagrelide works by reducing the number of platelets in the bloodstream by stopping their production.


How is Anagrelide taken?

The recommended dosage for this treatment will depend on your condition and response. This medicine is usually taken 2 to 4 times a day. Each dose is to be taken by mouth as a whole. Each dose can be taken either with or without food. Do not take more than 2.5 milligrams in a single dose. It should also not be more than a total of 10 milligrams in a day. Follow your doctor’s prescription very carefully.

Keep taking this medicine even if you feel well. To help you remember, take the medicine at the same time each day. Individuals with high levels of platelets might not feel sick. Do not stop taking this medicine without consent from your doctor. Stopping this treatment will cause your platelets to increase in levels. Your health care provider or doctor will monitor your blood counts often to adjust your dose and monitor your improvement.  If your condition does not improve or if it gets worse, call your doctor right away.


What are the precautions in taking Anagrelide?

  • Before using this treatment, inform your doctor if you are allergic to it or if you have any allergies.
  • You will be carefully and regularly monitored by your doctor while you are taking this drug. Before starting and during treatment, your cardiovascular health will be evaluated. Blood tests and other monitoring will be done often during your treatment program to check any side effects early on and to measure your reaction to the medication.
  • You may feel dizzy or drowsy when you first start taking this medicine. This should lessen as your body adjusts to the drug. Do not operate machinery or drive a car if you are feeling dizzy, drowsy, or less alert than usual.
  • Tell your doctor if you have any medical history or current medications including vitamins, herbal products, or food supplements.
  • Consult first with a doctor if you are a pregnant or breastfeeding woman. This may not be recommended for use in them and can only be used when needed.
  • Keep this away from the reach of children or pets.
May 10, 2021

Where is Amantadine Hydrochloride used?

Amantadine Hydrochloride is an FDA-approved prescription used for the treatment of;

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Pain associated with shingles called herpes zoster

This medicine has pharmacological actions as both an anti-Parkinson’s and an antiviral drug. This drug restores the balance of certain natural substances in the brain that helps with the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and shingles.


How does Amantadine Hydrochloride work?

This medicine works in several actions that permit it to control some symptoms of the disease.

  • It increases the activity of dopamine in the brain. Dopamine is known to be absent in the brains of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. This is understood to be the main reason for the disease’s symptoms. By increasing the release of dopamine in the brain, Amantadine Hydrochloride replaces some lost dopamine. Therefore, it reduces some symptoms of the disease.
  • Amantadine Hydrochloride also has a mild anticholinergic effect. It stops the activity of acetylcholine. There is usually a balance between the activity of dopamine and the activity of acetylcholine in the brain. By decreasing the action of acetylcholine, this medication helps restore the balance of dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain. This also helps reduce some symptoms.
  • This medication affects a third neurotransmitter called glutamate. Overactivity of this neurotransmitter is also thought to play a role in causing the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Amantadine Hydrochloride stops the receptors in the brain that glutamate commonly acts on.


How is Amantadine Hydrochloride taken?

Take this medication once a day by mouth with or without food. The recommended dosage will depend on your medical condition and response to treatment. Take each dose at the same time each day to help you remember. Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it.

Do not stop using this medicine without consulting your doctor. If you stop taking this medication or if your dosage is quickly reduced your condition may get worse. Your doctor may slowly decrease your dosage to lessen the chance of symptoms. Tell your doctor right away if any new or worsening symptoms.


What are the precautions in using Amantadine Hydrochloride?

  • Use Amantadine Hydrochloride with caution in elderly people and people with underlying psychiatric disorders. For people with kidney or liver disorders, this medication should be used with caution as well.
  • This drug should not be used in pregnant or breastfeeding women, with severe kidney disease, or those who suffer from fits.
  • Amantadine Hydrochloride may cause dizziness and blurred vision. It may affect your ability to perform hazardous activities safely. Do not perform such activities if you do not know exactly how this drug affects you.
  • While having this medication, limit alcoholic beverages. It may increase your risk of having certain side effects.
  • Let your doctor know if you have any other medications including herbal supplements or vitamins.
  • Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this medicine. This should be used with caution in them.
  • If you are taking this medication for treatment, you should not receive any vaccinations or immunizations without talking to your doctor.